Fungi Identified from Environmental Specimens

Fungi Identified from Environmental Specimens

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A

Absidia Species
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a coarse wooly gray colony with a white reverse within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and is very common. It is found in air, soil, swamps, dunes, sewage, caves, plants, bird feathers, compost , foodstuffs, and rabbit dung. It is one of the fungi responsible for a human and warm-blooded animal disease called zygomycosis. It attacks the lungs, nasal sinuses, and other organs in patients, especially in diabetic patients. It is capable of causing allergic disease.

Absidia Corymbifera
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a coarse wooly gray colony with a white reverse within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and is very common. It is found in air, soil, swamps, dunes, sewage, caves, plants, bird feathers, compost , foodstuffs, and rabbit dung. It is one of the fungi responsible for a human and warm-blooded animal disease called zygomycosis. It attacks the lungs, nasal sinuses, and other organs in patients, especially in diabetic patients. It is capable of causing allergic disease.

Absidia Spinosa
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a brownish-gray colony with a white reverse within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is infrequently isolated. It is found in soil, sand dunes, plants and fresh water. Rarely an opportunistic human pathogen. It is capable of causing allergic disease.

Acremonium Species (Cephalosporium species)
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a white, gray, rose, or pinkish colony with a colorless, pale yellow or pinkish reverse within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is a common fungus with worldwide distribution and is found in air, soil, plants and fresh water. It can produce the mycotoxin trichothecene which can cause disease in humans and animals. Trichothecene targets the circulatory, alimentary, skin, and nervous systems. Rarely an opportunistic human pathogen causing mycetomas, nail and eye (corneal) infections.

Acremonium Chrysogenum
A moderately rapid growing fungus that produces a yellow colony when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is a common fungus with worldwide distribution on a wide range of substrates. It has been isolated from soil, plants, air, organic detritus, hay, and stained wood. It is not a human or animal pathogen.

Acremonium Fusidioides (Paecilomyces fusidioides)
A rapidly growing fungus that produces an ochraceous, brown, powdery colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It can be isolated from soil and has worldwide distribution. It is a plant pathogen and is not a human or animal pathogen.

Acremonium Kiliense (Cephalosporium acremonium)
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a pinkish colony with a colorless, pale yellow or pinkish reverse within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is a common fungus with worldwide distribution and is found in air, soil, plants and fresh water. It can produce the mycotoxin trichothecene which can cause disease in humans and animals. Trichothecene targets the circulatory, alimentary, skin, and nervous systems. Rarely an opportunistic human pathogen causing mycetomas, nail and eye (corneal) infections.

Acremonium Murorum (Gliomastix murorum)
A moderately rapid growing fungus that produces an olivaceous to black colony with a brown reverse in ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is a common fungus with worldwide distribution on a wide range of substrates. It has been isolated from soil, sand dunes, sand boxes, organic detritus, salt marshes, salt and fresh water, river and marine sediments, sewage, plants, and bird feathers. and fresh water. It is not a human or animal pathogen.

Acremonium Strictum
A moderately rapid growing fungus that produces a pink colony when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is a common fungus with worldwide distribution on a wide range of substrates. It has been isolated from soil, plants, air, organic detritus, hay, stained wood, and as a contaminant of fuel and fuel filters. It is not a human or animal pathogen.

Alternaria Species
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a grayish-white colony that becomes greenish-black within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from air, plants (A black spot of roses), foodstuffs, soil, carpets, and textiles. It can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (woodworkers lung disease) and an immediate-type hypersensitivity-type I (IgE-mediated) extrinsic asthma and disease that is very common in individuals with atopic disease.

Alternaria Alternata
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a greenish-black colony within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It produces toxic metabolites including tenuazonic acid. It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from air, plants (A black spot of roses), foodstuffs, soil, and textiles. Rarely an opportunistic human pathogen causing a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (woodworkers lung disease) and an immediate-type hypersensitivity-type I (IgE-mediated) extrinsic asthma and disease that is very common in individuals with atopic disease.

Alternaria Brassicicola
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a dark olivaceous brown to dark blackish brown colony within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It produces toxic metabolites including tenuazonic acid. It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from air, plants especially cabbage and cauliflower, foodstuffs, soil, and textiles. Rarely causing an immediate-type hypersensitivity-type I (IgE-mediated) extrinsic asthma and disease that is very common in individuals with atopic disease.

Alternaria Radicina
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a grayish-white colony that becomes greenish-black within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from plants and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Alternaria Tenuissima
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a grayish-white colony that becomes greenish-black within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It produces toxic metabolites including tenuazonic acid. It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from air, plants ( A black spot of roses), foodstuffs, soil, and textiles. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (woodworkers lung disease) and an immediate-type hypersensitivity-type I (IgE-mediated) extrinsic asthma and disease very common in individuals with atopic disease.

Apiospora Montagnei
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a whitish colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from soil, dunes, plants, rotten wood, decaying plants, dung, and bird feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Arthrobotrys Species
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a white, yellow, pale pink or salmon colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is frequently isolated from soil, plants, rabbit dung and other nematode infested materials. It is capable of trapping nematodes by means of adhesive loops of hyphae or a hyphal network. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Arthroderma Species
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a white, cream, buff, or yellowish colony with either a pink to vinaceous or a yellow to brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is frequently isolated. It is isolated from soil, animal hair, reptile scales, bat guano, and bird feathers. Rarely a human or animal pathogen causing dermatophytoses (ringworm).

Arthroderma Cuniculi (Anamorph: Chrysosporium species)
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a yellowish colony with a yellow to brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is frequently isolated from soil, animal hair, reptile scales, and bird feathers. Rarely a human or animal pathogen causing dermatophytoses (ringworm).

Arthroderma Insingulare (Anamorph: Trichophyton terrestre)
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a white, later pale yellowish colony with a pink to vinaceous reverse, within nine days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is frequently isolated from soil, rodent hair, and chicken feathers. Rarely a human or animal pathogen causing dermatophytoses (ringworm).

Arthroderma Quadrifidum (Anamorph: Trichophyton terrestre)
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a white later yellowish colony with a yellowish brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is frequently isolated from soil, animal hair, and bird feathers. Rarely an animal pathogen causing dermatophytoses (ringworm).

Ascospore
Ascospores are the spores produced by the membranes of ascomycetes. Size and shape (circular to elongated) are greatly variable. May be unicellular or multi-cellular in structure. Development takes place within asci (a type of fruiting body), responsible for sexual propagation.

Many of the ascospores become air-borne and can be trapped from the ambient air also.

Aspergillus Species
Rapidly growing fungi that produce pigmented colonies that are some shade of green, yellow, brown, or black within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is very common worldwide. It can be isolated from air, plants, foodstuffs, soil, sand beaches, caves and mines, activated sludge, mangrove swamps, fresh water, compost, animal dung, silage, fodder, and cotton fabrics in the tropics. Some species are thermotolerent. Some species are allergenic and other species produce powerful mycotoxins. They are one of the most common causes of systemic fungal disease in humans and animals causing primarily acute or chronic respiratory tract infections.

Aspergillus Alutaceus (Aspergillus ochraceus)
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a ochraceous to buff colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is common worldwide and can be isolated from soil, desert soil., salt marshes, caves and mines, childrens sandpits, sewage, foodstuffs including vegetables and ground pepper, wood pulp, cotton fabrics, leather, bird feathers and bees. It produces three ochratoxins (A, B, and C) that are extremely toxic for poultry that have been exposed to it by eating contaminated feed. Ochratoxin A toxicity is comparable to aflatoxin B1 1. Ochratoxins are produced under conditions of high humidity and a temperature of 25oC. Other mycotoxins produced include penicillic acid, biomellein, and xanthomegnin which are toxin to the liver and kidney. Rarely, an opportunistic human pathogen.

Aspergillus Candidus
A slow growing fungus that produces a white, later cream to yellowish cream colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Some isolates can produce the mycotoxin petulin which can cause disease in humans and animals. It is very common worldwide especially in the subtropical and tropical regions. It can be isolated from air, plants, soil, sand dunes, mangrove swamps, desert soil, caves and mines, fresh and salt water, animals, bird feathers, and foodstuffs. Rarely an opportunistic animal or human pathogen

Aspergillus Clavatus
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a blue-green colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is very common worldwide especially in the subtropical and tropical regions. It can be isolated from soil, desert soil, caves, bird feathers, insects, and foodstuffs. It produces a mycotoxin in infested grain that affects cattle and fowl. It is capable of producing allergic respiratory disease in humans.

Aspergillus Flavipes
A rapidly growing fungus that produces at first a whitish later a yellowish colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is very common worldwide especially in the subtropical and tropical regions. It can be isolated from soil, mangrove swamps, sewage, brackish water, salt marsh, and river water. It is not considered to be a human pathogen.

Aspergillus Flavus
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a yellow-green colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is very common worldwide especially in the subtropical and tropical regions. It can be isolated from soil, mangrove swamp, sewage sludge, foodstuffs including ground black pepper, bird feathers, gastrointestinal tract of man and animals, wood pulp, insects, cotton fabric, leather, and frescoes of a monastery. It produces aflatoxins which are very toxic to man, animals, fish, insects, and birds. Production of aflatoxins is dependent upon the substrate present and the growth conditions (temperature, relative humidity, etc.). Aflatoxins are toxic to the liver. They are teratogenic, mutagenic, and a known animal and suspected human carcinogen. Exposure to the aflatoxins occurs primarily when contaminated food is ingested. Occasionally it produces pulmonary infections when inhaled, eye (corneal) infections, ear infections, nasal and sinus infections, and may cause allergic disease.

Aspergillus Fumigatus
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a bluish-green colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is a thermotolerant fungus and is very common worldwide. It can be isolated from air, plants, foodstuffs, soil, sand beaches, caves and mines, activated sludge, mangrove swamps, fresh water, compost, animal dung, silage, fodder, and cotton fabrics in the tropics. It is one of the most common causes of systemic fungal disease in humans and animals causing acute or chronic respiratory tract infections. It is a well documented allergen.

Aspergillus Glaucus
A slow growing fungus that produces a yellow-green to greenish-gray colony with a yellow-brown to red-brown reverse within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is very common worldwide especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. It can be isolated from air, soil, garden compost, silage, course fodder, peat, desert soil, sand dunes, estuarien silt, salt marshes, mangrove swamps, polluted streams, salt water, frescoes in a monastery, sugar beets, corn, rhizospheres of oats and barley, rice, groundnuts, spices and meat products, bird feathers, and foodstuffs. It is not considered to be an animal or human pathogen.

Aspergillus Nidulans
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a dark green colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is very common worldwide especially in the subtropical and tropical regions. It can be isolated from air, soil, sand beaches, mangrove swamp, brackish soil, sewage sludge, compost, foodstuffs, animal dung, bird feathers, and bees. It can produce the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. In man, it occurs primarily as the causal agent of mycetomas and rarely as a cause of pulmonary aspergillosis. It is a animal pathogen, causing aspergillosis in horses and poultry.

Aspergillus Niger
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a black colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It produces a musty odor. It is very common worldwide especially in the subtropical and tropical regions. It can be isolated from air, soil, sand beaches, mangrove swamp, fresh water containing organic detritus, sewage sludge, compost, foodstuffs especially fruits and vegetables, animal dung, bird feathers, wood pulp, seeds, textiles, and sauna baths. In man, it occurs primarily as the causal agent of chronic ear infections and rarely causes pulmonary aspergillosis.

Aspergillus Niveus
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a white to pale yellow colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is common worldwide and can be isolated from soil. It produces a mycotoxin that is toxic for ducklings that have ingested contaminated feed. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Aspergillus Oryzae
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a brownish green colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is common worldwide and can be isolated from soil, air, plants, fermented foods, dried cereals and legumes, dried fruits and nuts, birds nests, fodder, wood pulp, and cotton fabrics. It produces kojic acid and a mycotoxin, cyclopiazonic acid. It is not pathogenic for humans.

Aspergillus parasiticus
A moderately rapid growing fungus that produces a green colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is very common worldwide and can be isolated from air, soil, activated sludge, rice, pecans, groundnuts, insects, and bird feathers. It produces aflatoxins which are very toxic to man, animals, fish, insects, and birds. Production of aflatoxins is dependent upon the substrate present and the growth conditions (temperature, relative humidity, etc.). Aflatoxins are toxic to the liver. They are teratogenic, mutagenic, and a known animal and suspected human carcinogen. Exposure to the aflatoxins occurs primarily when contaminated food is ingested. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Aspergillus Restrictus
A slow-growing fungus that produces a dark olive green colony within twenty one days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from soil, desert soil, organic detritus, seeds, ground white and black pepper, pecans, dried meats, nests of free-living birds, and foodstuffs. Rarely it is an opportunistic human pathogen..

Aspergillus Sydowii
A moderately rapid growing fungus that produces a intense blue-green to grayish blue colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from air, soil, desert soil, mangrove swamps, sewage, mines, seawater, bird feathers, cotton fabrics, leather, and foodstuffs. Rarely it is an opportunistic human pathogen causing nail infections (onychomycosis).

Aspergillus Terreus
A moderately rapid growing fungus that produces a cinnamon to orange-brown or brown colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is commonly found worldwide but especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. It can be isolated from air, soil, desert soil, mangrove swamps, salt marshes, sewage, mines, seawater, bird feathers, composts and silage, bees, and flour-type foodstuffs. Isolates can produce the mycotoxins patulin and citrinin which can be associated with human and animal disease. It can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing pulmonary, skin, ear, and nail infections.

Aspergillus Ustus
A rapidly growing fungus that produces an olive-gray to drab colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is commonly found worldwide but especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. It can be isolated from air, soil, desert soil, sand dunes, mangrove swamps, salt marshes, sewage, mines, seawater, bird feathers, rabbit dung, wood pulp, cotton fabric, leather, bees, and plant seeds. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Aspergillus Versicolor
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a variable pigmented colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is commonly found worldwide but especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. It can be isolated from air, soil, desert soil, sand dunes, mangrove swamps, salt marshes, sewage, caves and mines, seawater, bird feathers, animal dung, moldy hay, fodder, fruit juices, rotting military equipment, optical equipment, meat products, spices, and plants. It can produce the mycotoxins sterigmatocystin and cyclopiaxonic which are associated with human disease. Both mycotoxins are liver and kidney carcinogens. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Aspergillus Wentii
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a yellow, later brownish colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is commonly found worldwide but especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. It can be isolated from soil, desert soil, mangrove swamps, sewage, caves, fresh and salt water, bird feathers, gerbils, and plants. A mycotoxin producer, it produces a large amount of aflatoxin B1 and trace amounts of aflatoxin B2. There have not been any documented reports of human infections.

Aureobasidium Pullulans
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a cream or pink to light brown or black leathery colony, within seven days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from soil, desert soil, peat bogs, fresh water, seawater, sewage, plants, honeycombs, fruits, leather, cotton fabrics, and surfaces of concrete, paint, plastics, and optical lenses. Rarely an opportunistic human pathogen.

B

Beauveria Species
A slow growing fungus that produces a white, later becoming yellow or pinkish colony, within eight days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from soil, desert soil, peat bogs, water, and insects. It is an insect parasite and is used as a biological control measure for insects. There have not been any documented reports of human infections.

Beauveria Bassiana
A slow growing fungus that produces a white, later becoming yellow or pinkish colony, within eight days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from soil, desert soil, peat bogs, water, insects, rodents, and nests, feathers, and droppings of birds. It is an insect parasite and is used as a biological control measure for insects. There have not been any documented reports of human infections.

Beltrania Species
A slow growing fungus that produces a brown to black colony when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is commonly isolated from dead leaves of many tropical plants including lime, pineapple, tea, various species of oak (Quercus) trees and from air and soil. There have not been any documented reports of human infections.

Beltrania Querna
A slow growing fungus that produces a brown to black colony when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is commonly isolated from various species of oak (Quercus) trees. There have not been any documented reports of human infections.

Bipolaris Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a grayish-brown to black colony, within seven days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It can produce the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin which can cause liver and kidney damage in humans and animals. It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from soil, sand, plants, birds, and cotton fabrics. Rarely an opportunistic human pathogen.

Bipolaris Spicifera
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a grayish-brown to black colony, within seven days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from soil, sand, plants, birds, and cotton fabrics. It can produce the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin which can cause liver and kidney damage in humans and animals. Rarely it is an opportunistic human pathogen.

Bispora Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a grayish-brown to black colony, within seven days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from plants and wood. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Bispora Betulina
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a grayish-brown to black colony, within seven days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from dead wood. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Botryotrichum Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a whitish to buff colony, within seven days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from soil, salt marshes, sand, rabbit and field mouse dung, deer and goat excrements, paper products, textiles, plants, and sewage. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Botryotrichum Piluliferum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a whitish to buff colony, within seven days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from soil, salt marshes, sand, rabbit and field mouse dung, deer and goat excrements, paper products, textiles, plants, and sewage. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Botrytis Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a hyaline later becoming light gray to grayish-brown colony within seven days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide but is more common in humid temperate and subtropical regions. It is isolated primarily from plants and it is an airborne plant pathogen. It can be isolated from soil, salt marshes, sand, mangrove mud, sewage, fresh and salt water. There is evidence that it may be associated with allergic disease.

Botrytis Cinerea
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a hyaline later becoming light gray to grayish-brown colony within seven days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide but is more common in humid temperate and subtropical regions. It is primarily isolated from plants and is an airborne plant pathogen. It can be isolated from soil, salt marshes, sand, mangrove mud, sewage, fresh and salt water. There is evidence that it may be associated with allergic disease.

Brachysporium Species
A moderately rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dark brown colony, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from rotten wood and bark of various trees and shrubs including alder, ash, beech, birch, chestnut, elder, oak, and pine. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Brachysporium Obovatum
A moderately rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dark brown colony, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from rotten wood and bark of various trees and shrubs including beech, blackthorn, elder, oak, poplar and sycamore. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Broomella Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a light brown colony, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from soil and plants. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Broomella Acuta
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a light brown colony, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from soil and plants. There have not been any reports of human infections.

C

Candida Species
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multipolar budding with the production on pseudomycelium (false hyphae). Colonies may be pasty, dry or wrinkled but never brightly pigmented. It has worldwide distribution and is very common because it is part of the normal fungal flora of humans and animals. It is not normally found in the environment unless humans, insects or animals are present. It can cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (candidiasis) in susceptible individuals, especially those that are immunocompromised or are experiencing vitamin deficiency.

Candida Albicans
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multipolar budding with the production on pseudomycelium (false hyphae). Colonies are pasty, cream colored, but never brightly pigmented. It has worldwide distribution and is very common because it is part of the normal fungal flora of humans and animals. It is not normally found in the environment unless humans, insects or animals are present. It can cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (candidiasis) in susceptible individuals, especially those that are immunocompromised, or are experiencing vitamin deficiency.

Candida Edax
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multipolar budding with the production on pseudomycelium (false hyphae). Colonies are pasty, cream colored, but never brightly pigmented. It has been isolated from insects and from frass ( the mixture or excrement and other components, i.e., soil, sawdust, etc. used by insects to build their homes). There have not been any reports of human infections.

Candida Guilliermondi (Pichia guilliermondi)
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multipolar budding with the production on pseudomycelium (false hyphae). Colonies are pasty, cream colored, may become pinkish with age but never brightly pigmented. It has worldwide distribution and may be found as part of the normal fungal flora of humans and animals. It is not normally found in the environment unless humans, insects or animals are present. It can cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (candidiasis) in susceptible individuals, especially those that are immunocompromised.

Candida Krusei
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multipolar budding with the production on pseudomycelium (false hyphae). Colonies are cream colored and dry with a mycelial fringe, but never brightly pigmented. It has worldwide distribution and is common because it can be part of the normal fungal flora of humans and animals. It is not normally found in the environment unless humans, insects or animals are present. It can cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (candidiasis) in susceptible individuals, especially those that are immunocompromised.

Candida Parapsilosis
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multipolar budding with the production on pseudomycelium (false hyphae). Colonies are pasty, cream colored, never brightly pigmented, and may develop a lacy appearance. It has worldwide distribution and may be found as part of the normal fungal flora of humans and animals. It is not normally found in the environment unless humans, insects or animals are present. It can cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (candidiasis) in susceptible individuals, especially those that are immunocompromised.

Candida Parapsilosis Group A
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multipolar budding with the production on pseudomycelium (false hyphae). Colonies are pasty, cream colored, never brightly pigmented, and may develop a lacy appearance. This isolate of Candida parapsilosis has been identified as belonging to Group A using the Biolog classification system. It has worldwide distribution and may be found as part of the normal fungal flora of humans and animals. It is not normally found in the environment unless humans, insects or animals are present. It can cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (candidiasis) in susceptible individuals, especially those that are immunocompromised.

Candida Parapsilosis B
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multipolar budding with the production on pseudomycelium (false hyphae). Colonies are pasty, cream colored, never brightly pigmented, and may develop a lacy appearance. This isolate of Candida parapsilosis has been identified as belonging to Group B using the Biolog classification system. It has worldwide distribution and may be found as part of the normal fungal flora of humans and animals. It is not normally found in the environment unless humans, insects or animals are present. It can cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (candidiasis) in susceptible individuals, especially those that are immunocompromised.

Candida Pseudotropicalis
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multipolar budding with the production on pseudomycelium (false hyphae). Colonies are pasty and cream colored, but never brightly pigmented. It has worldwide distribution and may be found as part of the normal fungal flora of humans and animals. It is not normally found in the environment unless humans, insects or animals are present. It can cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (candidiasis) in susceptible individuals, especially those that are immunocompromised.

Candida Tropicalis
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multipolar budding with the production on pseudomycelium (false hyphae). Colonies may be pasty with a mycelial fringe, cream colored, but never brightly pigmented. It has worldwide distribution and may be found as part of the normal fungal flora of humans and animals. It is not normally found in the environment unless humans, insects or animals are present. It can cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (candidiasis) in susceptible individuals, especially those that are immunocompromised.

Chaetomium Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white to yellow to yellowish-green colony, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It may produce an earthy odor. It is found worldwide. It is an important cause of decay of cotton and other cellulose materials; cause of soft rot in wood and fruit rot; and is important in the decomposition of plant material in composts. It can be isolated from dung, straw, bird feathers, soil and plants. It may be associated with allergic disease.

Chaetomium Elatum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a yellow-green colony, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It may produce an earthy odor. It is the most widely distributed of the Chaetomium species. It is found worldwide, mainly in the temperate zone. It is found in dead and decaying plant debris, coarse fodder, bird nests and feathers, salt marshes, sewage sludge, and on wood and plywood. It may be associated with allergic disease.

Chrysosporium Species
A moderately rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white to olive to brown colony, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and has been isolated from soil, animal dung, bird feathers, plants, paper and paper pulp, bees, and leather. Rarely, it can be a pathogen causing pulmonary disease in humans and animals.

Chrysosporium Asperatum
A moderately rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white to olive to brown colony with a white margin, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and has been isolated from soil and bird feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Chrysosporium Merdarium
A moderately rapidly-growing fungus that produces a colony that is variable in color and texture, downy or granular, often with a broad, glabrous or waxy marginal zone, and a granular, intensely yellow center and a yellow to olivaceous reverse when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and has been isolated from animal dung, leather, soil and plant remains. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Cladosporium Species
A slow-growing fungus that produces a velvety, dark greenish-brown to blackish colony with an olivaceous-black reverse, when incubated at 25oC (77oF) in 5-10 days. The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). Cladosporium species are found worldwide and are among the most common fungi found in the air, soil, foodstuffs, paint, textiles, bird feathers, and on plants. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing chromoblastomycosis. It can cause a hypersensitivity pneumonitis known as Ahot tub lung disease and an immediate-type hypersensitivity - type I (IgE-mediated) extrinsic asthma.

Cladosporium Cladosporioides
A slow-growing fungus that produces a velvety, dark greenish-brown to blackish colony with an olivaceous-black reverse, when incubated at 25oC (77oF) in 5-10 days. The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is the most common fungus isolated from the air, soil, water, sewage and activated sludge, compost beds, stored woods, bird feathers, food products, and on plants. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen but it can cause an immediate-type hypersensitivity - type I (IgE-mediated) extrinsic asthma.

Cladosporium Herbarum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a olive green or olivaceous brown velvety colony with an greenish-black reverse, when incubated at 25oC (77oF) in ten days. The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is the most common fungus isolated from the dead organic matter, air, soil, desert soil, caves, fresh and salt water, salt marshes, sewage and activated sludge, compost beds, guano, decaying woods, and on plants. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen but it can cause an immediate-type hypersensitivity - type I (IgE-mediated) extrinsic asthma.

Cladosporium Macrocarpum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a olive green often covered with a layer of pale gray aerial mycelium, when incubated at 25oC (77oF) in ten days. The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is found most commonly in temperate regions. It has been isolated from the dead organic matter, plants, air, soil, bird feathers, and growing on rocks. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Cladosporium Sphaerospermum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a olive green or olivaceous brown velvety colony with an greenish-black reverse, when incubated at 25oC (77oF) in ten days. The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is a very common fungus isolated from the dead organic matter, air, soil, plants, desert soil, caves, fresh water, foodstuffs, bird feathers, and rarely from humans and animals. Very rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen but it can cause an immediate-type hypersensitivity - type I (IgE-mediated) extrinsic asthma.

Cochliobolus Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dark brown colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, and soil. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing eye (corneal) infections, mycetoma, and infections in immunocompromised patients.

Cochliobolus Geniculatus
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dark brown colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide, mainly in the tropics, and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, and soil. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing eye (corneal) infections, mycetoma, and postoperative endocarditis.

Cochliobolus Lunatus
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dark brown colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide, mainly in the tropics, and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, mangrove mud, estuaries, and soil. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing mycetoma in man.

Cochliobolus Spicifer
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dark brown colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide, mainly in the tropics and the subtropics, and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, and soil. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing eye (corneal) infections in man, and subcutaneous mycoses in cats and horses.

Conidiobolus Species
A very rapid-growing fungus that produces fuzzy colonies against a translucent background within three days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Older colonies appear pale brownish and powery. There are twenty seven species within the genus Conidiobolus They have worldwide distribution and have been isolated from soil, plants, plant debris, sewage, insects, and mites. One species, C. coronata is the causal agent of rhinoentomophthoromycosis in man.

Conidiobolus Coronatus
A very rapid-growing fungus that produces a fuzzy colony against a translucent background within three days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Older colonies appear pale brownish and powery. It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, plants, plant debris, sewage, insects, and mites. It is the causal agent of rhinoentomophthoromycosis in man.

Cryptococcus Species
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. The colonies is soft and may have a slimy appearance because of the presence of a capsule. It can be cream, tan, pink, or yellow pigmented. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from air, soil, aged bird droppings, fresh water, saltwater, and tropical plants. It can cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (cryptococcosis) in susceptible individuals.

Cryptococcus Albidus
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. The colony is soft and may have a slimy appearance because of the presence of a capsule. It can be cream, slightly yellow or tan pigmented. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from air, soil, tropical plants, insects, fresh water and from saltwater including invertebrates, grasses, and sediments in Florida and the Bahamas. It can cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (cryptococcosis) in susceptible individuals.

Cryptococcus Albidus Variety Aerius
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. The colony is white and has a soft consistency, but does not have a slimy appearance. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from air and soil. It rarely causes acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (cryptococcosis) in susceptible individuals.

Cryptococcus Albidus Variety Diffluens
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. The colony has a slimy appearance because of the presence of a capsule and may be cream, slightly yellowish, or tan pigmented. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from air, soil, salt water, and tropical plants. It rarely causes acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (cryptococcosis) in susceptible individuals.

Cryptococcus Laurentii
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. The colony is soft and may have a slimy appearance because of the presence of a capsule. It may have cream, yellowish, pinkish, orange or tan pigmentation. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from air, soil, tropical plants, and from saltwater including invertebrates, grasses, and sediments in Florida and the Bahamas. It rarely causes acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (cryptococcosis) in susceptible individuals.

Cryptococcus Luteolus
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. The colony is soft and may have a slimy appearance because of the presence of a capsule. It may have cream, yellowish, pinkish, orange or tan pigmentation. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from air, soil, tropical plants, and from saltwater in the Bahamas. It rarely causes acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (cryptococcosis) in susceptible individuals.

Cryptococcus Terreus Group B
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. The colony is soft and may be yellowish-tan to brownish. This isolate of Cryptococcus terreus has been identified as belonging to Group B using the Biolog classification system. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from soil, fresh water, and plants. It rarely causes acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections (cryptococcosis) in susceptible individuals.

Cunninghamella Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white to gray colony within three days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is commonly isolated from the soil in tropical and subtropical areas and rarely in temperate areas. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients.

Cunninghamella Elegans
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white colony within three days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The white colony becomes dark gray with increased incubation. It is commonly isolated in tropical and subtropical areas and rarely in temperate areas. It can be isolated from cultivated and uncultivated soils, peatbogs, salt marshes, dunes, desert soils, caves, lake bottom mud, estuarine sediments, plants, and polluted water. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients.

Curvularia Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, or black colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants (especially grasses), sand dune soil, and soil. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing allergic reactions, eye (corneal) infections, mycetoma, and infections in immunocompromised patients.

Curvularia Geniculata
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, or black colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants (especially grasses), sand dune soil, and soil. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing allergic reactions, eye (corneal) infections, mycetoma, and infections in immunocompromised patients.

Curvularia Lunata
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, or black colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants (especially grasses), sand dune soil, and soil. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing allergic reactions, eye (corneal) infections, mycetoma, and infections in immunocompromised patients.

Cylindrocarpon Species
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a white, beige, cream, to coffee-brown colony with a beige to amber or reddish-brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). May produce an earthy odor. It is found worldwide and is a common fungus isolated from soil and plants. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Cylindrocarpon Candidum
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a white, yellowish to gray colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Reverse is yellowish-brown colony becoming chocolate brown. May produce an earthy odor. It is found worldwide and is a common fungus isolated from soil, dung and hardwood trees. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Cylindrocarpon Cylindroides
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a white colony with a tinge of yellow later becoming brown, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Reverse is cream to yellow, later becoming beige to brown. May produce an earthy odor. It is found worldwide and is a common fungus isolated from soil and plants. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

D

Debaryomyces Species
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. Colonies are soft, becoming wrinkled with age and may be grayish white to yellowish. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from air, soil, foodstuffs, and plants. They rarely cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections in susceptible individuals.

Debaryomyces Hansenii Group A
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. Colonies are soft, becoming wrinkled with age and may be grayish white to yellowish. This isolate of Debaryomyces hansenii has been identified as belonging to Group A using the Biolog classification system. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from air, soil, foodstuffs, and plants. They rarely cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections in susceptible individuals.

Debaryomyces Hansenii Group C
A rapidly growing yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. Colonies are soft, becoming wrinkled with age and may be grayish white to yellowish. This isolate of Debaryomyces hansenii has been identified as belonging to Group C using the Biolog classification system. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from air, soil, foodstuffs, and plants. They rarely cause acute, subacute, or chronic yeast infections in susceptible individuals.

Delitschia Species
Delitschia belongs to class ascomyceles of fungi. Ascospores are produced in asci. The ascospores are also reported from the air. It is dark brown in color, fusoid to ellipsoid. Allergenic nature of these spores are not known.

Diplococcium Species
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a dark brown colony within seven to ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from dead and rotting wood and from the bark of living trees (Birch, Beech, Oak, Pine, and Mountain Ash). There have not been any reports of human infections.

Diplococcium Spicatum
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a dark brown colony within seven to ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from dead and rotting wood and from the bark of living trees (Birch, Beech, Oak, Pine, and Mountain Ash). There have not been any reports of human infections.

Drechslera Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a grayish-brown, or greenish to black colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, grasses, grains, decaying food, and soil. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing eye (corneal ulcers) infections and subcutaneous or systemic disease.

Drechslera Hawaiiensis
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a grayish-brown, or greenish to black colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, grasses, grains, decaying food, and soil. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing eye (corneal ulcers) infections and subcutaneous or systemic disease.

Drechslera Rostrata
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dark brown, or olivaceous brown colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown. It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, grasses, grains, decaying food, and soil. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing subcutaneous or systemic disease.

E

Emericella Species (Anamorph: Aspergillus species)
A slow to moderately rapid growing fungus that produces a green to white to pale yellow colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Purple-brown or yellow cleistothecia (a round fruiting body without an opening that contains randomly placed asci containing ascospores) are produced. Ascospores are either purple-red or light yellow. Yellow or dark brown specialized thick-walled cells (Hülle cells) are present. In culture, the anamorph form is also present. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from air, soil, desert soil, sand dunes, peat, garden compost, garden soil, salt marshes, mangrove mud, sewage sludge, sugar cane, coconut groves, rice, cotton, potatoes, citrus, alfalfa, barley, bat caves, bird feathers, grain seeds, groundnuts, and animals. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic pathogen causing mycetomas in man, pulmonary lesions in horses, and aspergillosis in chickens and ducks.

Emericella Nidulans (Anamorph: Aspergillus nidulans)
A moderately rapid growing fungus that produces a dark greenish colony within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Cleistothecia (a round fruiting body without an opening that contains randomly placed asci containing ascospores) are produced. Ascospores are purple-red, smooth and have two equatorial ridges. Specialized thick-walled cells (Hülle cells) are present. In culture, the anamorph form is also present. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from air, soil, desert soil, sand dunes, peat, garden compost, garden soil, salt marshes, mangrove mud, sewage sludge, sugar cane, rice, cotton, potatoes, citrus, alfalfa, bird feathers, grain seeds, groundnuts, and animals. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic pathogen causing mycetomas in man, pulmonary lesions in horses, and aspergillosis in chickens.

Emericella Nivea (Anamorph: Aspergillus niveus)
A slow growing fungus that produces a white to pale yellow colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Light yellow cleistothecia (a round fruiting body without an opening that contains randomly placed asci containing ascospores) are occasionally produced. Ascospores are light yellow, smooth and have inconspicuous equatorial ridges. Yellow specialized thick-walled cells (Hülle cells) are present. In culture, the anamorph form is also present. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from soil, desert soil, and the rhizospheres of groundnuts and barley. It does not cause human infections, but can cause infections in young ducklings who have eaten contaminated

Emericella Rugulosa (Anamorph: Aspergillus rugulosus)
A slow growing fungus that produces a greenish colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Numerous purple-brown cleistothecia (a round fruiting body without an opening that contains randomly placed asci containing ascospores) are produced. Ascospores are purple-red, rough and have two sinuate equatorial ridges. Dark brown specialized thick-walled cells (Hülle cells) are present. In culture, the anamorph form is also present. It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from soil, coconut groves, bat caves, mangrove mud, rhizospheres of barley and wheat, compost, and groundnuts. It is not considered to be an animal or human pathogen.

Epicoccum Purpurascens
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a yellowish-orange colony with a red reverse within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). May produce a yellow, orange, red, or brown diffusible pigment. The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It is found in air, plants, grains, textiles, animals, foodstuffs, and paper products. It can cause allergic disease in humans.

Eurotium Species (Anamorph: Aspergillus species)
A slow growing fungus that produces a yellow-green to greenish-gray or a gray-green to bluish-gray, or a deep olive-green colony with a yellow-brown to red-brown reverse within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Orange-yellow cleistothecia (a round fruiting body without an opening that contains randomly placed asci containing ascospores) are abundantly produced. It is very common worldwide especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. It can be isolated from air, soil, garden compost, silage, course fodder, peat, desert soil, sand dunes, estuarien silt, salt marshes, mangrove swamps, polluted streams, salt water, frescoes in a monastery, sugar beets, corn, rhizospheres of oats and barley, rice, groundnuts, spices and meat products, bird feathers, rabbit dung, paper, leather, cotton fabrics, stored copra and cacao beans, and foodstuffs. It is sometimes listed as producing mycotoxins in contaminated corn and cereal products which are toxic for mice and ducklings. It is rarely considered to be an animal or human pathogen.

Eurotium Amstelodami (Anamorph: Aspergillus amstelodami)
A slow growing fungus that produces a deep olive-green colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Yellow cleistothecia (a round fruiting body without an opening that contains randomly placed asci containing ascospores) are abundantly produced. Ascospores are light yellow with broad ridges. Specialized thick-walled cells (Hülle cells) may be present. In culture, the anamorph form is also present. It is preferentially distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions. It can be isolated from the air, soil, peat, salt marshes, wheat, corn, tomatoes, carrots groundnuts, rice, bird feathers, honey bees, rabbit dung, rhizospheres of oats, poplar, and barley, and optical glasses. Rarely it is an opportunistic pathogen causing brain abscesses and mycetoma in humans, and aspergillosis in pelicans.

Eurotium Chevalieri (Anamorph: Aspergillus chevalieri)
A slow growing fungus that produces a gray-green to bluish gray colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Yellow cleistothecia (a round fruiting body without an opening that contains randomly placed asci containing ascospores) are abundantly produced. Ascospores are lens shaped with prominent equatorial ridges. In culture, the anamorph form is also present. It is preferentially distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions. It can be isolated from the air, soil, peat, grass litter, wheat, corn, copra and cacao beans. pecans, and cotton fabrics. Rarely it is an opportunistic pathogen causing maduromycosis in humans.

Eurotium Herbariorum (Anamorph: Aspergillus glaucus)
A slow growing fungus that produces a yellow-green to greenish-gray colony with a yellow-brown to red-brown reverse within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Orange-yellow cleistothecia (a round fruiting body without an opening that contains randomly placed asci containing ascospores) are abundantly produced. It is very common worldwide especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. It can be isolated from air, soil, garden compost, silage, course fodder, peat, desert soil, sand dunes, estuarien silt, salt marshes, mangrove swamps, polluted streams, salt water, frescoes in a monastery, sugar beets, corn, rhizospheres of oats and barley, rice, groundnuts, spices and meat products, bird feathers, paper, leather, cotton fabrics, stored copra and cacao beans, and foodstuffs. It is sometimes listed as producing mycotoxins in contaminated corn and cereal products which are toxic for mice and ducklings. It is not considered to be an animal or human pathogen.

Exosporium Species
A type of dematiaceous fungus. Mostly saprophytic in nature. Conidia are pseudoseptate several-celled structure with a prominent scar. Size varies from 28-70 microns. Not reported as aeroallergens.

F

Fusarium Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a pale or bright colored colony within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from plants, soil, caves, salt marshes, mangrove mud, insects, gerbils, bird feathers, water, wooden furniture, and wood pulp. Some isolates produce the mycotoxin trichothecene which can cause disease in humans and animals. Trichothecene targets the circulatory, alimentary, skin, and nervous systems. Some isolates produce the mycotoxin vomitoxin on grains which produce disease by either ingestion or inhalation of the contaminated grains. It can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing allergic disease, eye, skin, and nail infections.

Fusarium Arthrosporioides
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a pale or bright colored colony within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from air, plants especially grasses and cereals, and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Fusarium Moniliforme
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a pale flesh-color to vinaceous colored colony within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from plants, soil, caves, salt marshes, insects, bird feathers, water, and wood pulp. It can be an opportunistic human pathogen

Fusarium Oxysporum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white or peach or violet to purple tinged colony within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It may produce a lilac odor. It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from plants, soil, caves, salt marshes, mangrove mud, insects, bird feathers, water, wooden furniture, and wood pulp. It can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Fusarium Roseum (Fusarium culmorum)
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a red to red-brown to purple colored colony within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from plants, soil, caves, salt marshes, peat, fresh water and salt water. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Fusarium Solani
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a pale or bright colored colony within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from plants, soil, caves, salt marshes, mangrove mud, insects, gerbils, bird feathers, water, wooden furniture, and wood pulp. It can produce the mycotoxin trichothecene which can cause disease in humans and animals. It can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing eye and wound infections.

G

Geotrichum Candidum
A yeast that reproduces by the formation of arthrospores. Colonies are white and yeast-like but later produce white cottony aerial mycelium. It has worldwide distribution and is very common because it is part of the normal fungal flora of humans and animals. It can be isolated from contaminated grains, fruits, dairy products, paper, textiles, soil, and water. It can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing skin, pulmonary, mouth, and intestinal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients.

Gliocladium Species
A rapidly growing fungus that produces a pale to olive-green, white, pink or salmon colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is very common worldwide. It can be isolated from soil, salt marshes, desert soil, mangrove swamp, sewage sludge, foodstuffs, bird feathers, wood pulp, animal dung, cotton fabric, leather, and frescoes of a monastery. It produces a mycotoxin (gliotoxin) which is toxic to animals, shrimp, fish, and plants. There have not been any substantiated reports of human infections, however, it can cause allergic disease.

Glomerella Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a gray colony within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from plants, air, and rarely from soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Gonatobotryum Species
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a brown to dark brown colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is isolated from rotting wood, plants, and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Gonatobotryum Fuscum
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a brown to dark brown colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from rotting wood and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Gonatobotryum Apiculatum
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a brown to dark brown colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from plants and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Graphium Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a gray colony within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from plants and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections with Graphium species, however, it is an asexual form of Petriellidium boydii which causes subcutaneous mycoses in man.

H

Helminthosporium Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dark gray to black colony with a black reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, and soil. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing eye (corneal ulcers) infections and subcutaneous or systemic disease.

Humicola Species
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces an olivaceous colony with a dark reverse, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the soil, dunes, salt marshes, sea water, fresh water, caves, sewage sludge, composts, plants, and bird feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Humicola Fuscoatra
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a grayish brown to blackish brown colony with a dark reverse, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the soil, paddy fields, sandy and clay soils, grasslands, forest soil, plants, and bird feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Humicola Grisea
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces an olivaceous colony with a dark reverse, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the soil, dunes, salt marshes, sea water, fresh water, caves, sewage sludge, composts, plants, and bird feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

I

Idriella Lunata
A slow-growing fungus that produces a brownish colony with a black reverse, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from plants especially vegetables, and soil. It is the cause of strawberry root rot. There have not been any reports of human infections.

M

Memnoniella Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a blackish colony with a yellowish-brown to brownish-gray reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). They are found worldwide and can be isolated from soil, dead plants, paper and textiles. They are morphologically and physiologically closely related to Stachybotrys chartarum and has cytotoxicity similar to S. chartarum. It is unknown if they produce macrocyclic trichothecenes, however, they do produce simple trichothecenes (trichodermol and trichodermin) and phenylspirodrimanes. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Memnoniella Echinata
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a blackish colony with a yellowish-brown to brownish-gray reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from soil, dead plants, paper and textiles. It is morphologically and physiologically closely related to Stachybotrys chartarum and has cytotoxicity similar to S. chartarum. It is unknown if M. echinata produces macrocyclic trichothecenes, however, it does produce simple trichothecenes (trichodermol and trichodermin) and phenylspirodrimanes. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Monilia Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white or colored colony within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Monodictys Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a green, greenish-blue, lavender, dark gray, blackish-brown or black colony within five to seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from air, soil, dead or decaying plants, rotten wood, damp linoleum, damp paper, damp burlap, and feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Mortierella Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white or colored colony within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from soil, salt marshes, dunes, caves, fresh water, decaying wood and plants. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Mucor Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white to yellow colony, later becoming dark gray within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from air, soil, salt marshes, childrens sandpits, dunes, sandy soil, river water, garden compost, and decaying plant materials. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic humam pathogen.

Mucor Circinelloides
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white to yellow colony, later becoming dark gray within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from air, soil, salt marshes, childrens sandpits, dunes, sandy soil, river water, garden compost, and decaying plant materials. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Mucor Hiemalis
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white to yellow colony, later becoming dark gray within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is one of the most common fungi found in the environment. It can be isolated from air, soil, salt marshes, childrens sandpits, dunes, sandy soil, desert soil, river water, sewage sludge, animal dung, bird feathers, garden compost, and decaying plant materials. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Mucor Hiemalis Form Hiemalis
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white to yellow colony, later becoming dark gray within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is one of the most common fungi found in the environment. It can be isolated from air, soil, salt marshes, childrens sandpits, dunes, sandy soil, desert soil, river water, sewage sludge, animal dung, bird feathers, garden compost, and decaying plant materials. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Mucor Plumbeus
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dark gray colony or pale olive gray within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is one of the most common fungi found in the environment. It can be isolated from air, soil, salt marshes, childrens sandpits, dunes, sandy soil, desert soil, river water, sewage sludge, animal dung, bird feathers, garden compost, and decaying plant materials. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Mucor Racemosus
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white to yellow colony, later becoming dark gray within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is one of the most common fungi found in the environment. It can be isolated from soil, salt marshes, childrens sandpits, dunes, sandy soil, fresh water, animal dung, and bird feathers. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Mycogone Species
Mycogone species is a rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is isolated from soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Myrothecium Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white to rosy buff colony with a rosy buff to yellow reverse within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and can be isolated from plants, soil, salt marshes, dunes, sandy soil, and coastal sediments. There have not been any reports of human infections.

N

Neurospora Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a pink colony within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It produces enormous amounts of conidia. When mating types (+/-) are present, it produces dark colored, pyriform, and beaked perithecia (a closed structure with a pore). Eight ascospores are found in each asci inside the perithecia. It is found worldwide in soil, on plants, and in bakeries causing red bread mold. There have not been any reports of human infections .

Nigrospora Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white to gray colony with a black reverse, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is common. It can be isolated from plants, soil, and foodstuffs. There have not been any reports of human infections, however, it can cause allergic disease.

Nigrospora Sphaerica
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white to gray colony with a black reverse, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is common. It can be isolated from plants, soil, and foodstuffs. There have not been any reports of human infections, however, it can cause allergic disease.

O

Oidiodendron Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, yellow or olivaceous colony when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is common. It can be isolated from air, hay, paper, leaf litter, soil, wood and bark. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Oidiodendron Griseum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a gray to olivaceous brown, wrinkled colony when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is common. It can be isolated from air, hay, paper, leaf litter, soil, and woodpulp. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Oidiodendron Tenuissimum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a gray to blackish brown colony when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is common. It can be isolated from leaf litter, soil, wood and bark. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Oospora Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white, yellowish, greenish or tan colony within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is common. It can be isolated from soil and plants. There have not been any reports of human infections.

P

Paecilomyces Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white, gray-green, violet or yellowish-brown to tan colony with a white or brown reverse, within three days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is common. It can be isolated from soil, swamps, dunes, plants, composite, animal dung, wood pulp and paper, insects, and bird feathers. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing wood trimmers disease, humidifier associated illnesses, and allergic disease.

Paecilomyces Carneus
A slow-growing fungus that produces a pale pink colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is commonly found worldwide and can be isolated from soil, swamps, rabbit dung, wood pulp, paper, and plants. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Paecilomyces Farinosus
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white or bright yellow colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is commonly found worldwide. It is primarily an insect parasite but can be isolated from soil, swamps, sewage sludge, fresh water, and plants. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Paecilomyces Lilacinus
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a vinaceous colony with an uncolored or vinaceous reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is commonly found worldwide, but it is more common in the warmer regions. It can be isolated from soil, swamps, dunes, plants, composite, animal dung, wood pulp and paper, insects, and bird feathers. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing eye infections, wood trimmers disease, humidifier associated illnesses, and allergic disease.

Paecilomyces Variotii
A rapidly-growing fungus that produce an olivaceous colony, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It produces a sweet aromatic odor. It is a common fungus found worldwide. It can be isolated from soil, swamps, dunes, plants, composite, animal dung, wood pulp and paper, insects, and bird feathers. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing wood trimmers disease, humidifier associated illnesses, and allergic disease.

Papularia Species
Papularia belongs to class deuteromyceles of fungi. It is saprophytic in nature. Conidia also reported from the air. It is 1 - celled, dark, ovoid, broadly lenticular or globose, often with light band seen in side view. In culture, conidiophores are poorly developed, mostly simple, hyaline with short branches of mycelium. Allergenic effect is not known.

Papulaspora Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces abundant yellow to brown papulaspores with scant aerial mycelium on the agar surface within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It can be isolated from horse, dog and rabbit dung, soil and decaying plant material. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Papulaspora Immersa
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces abundant yellow to brown papulaspores with scant aerial mycelium on the agar surface within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It can be isolated from horse, dog and rabbit dung, soil and decaying plant material. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Species
A slow to rapidly-growing fungus that produces green, blue-green, yellow-green, gray-green, orange to red colony with an uncolored or yellow, orange, yellowish- brownish, deep red to reddish-purple reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Some species may produce a fruity odor. It is a common fungus isolated worldwide and can be isolated from air, soil, plants, sand dunes, sewage, swamps, mangrove swamps, salt marshes, caves, fresh and salt water, compost, cotton, cellulose, textiles, caterpillars, bird feathers, animal dung, leather, wooden furniture, bees and beehives, flour-based foodstuffs, optical lenses, paints, fruits, and fruit juices. Some species produce a mycotoxin. Rarely an opportunistic human pathogen in corneal infections and systemic infections. It also causes hypersensitivity pneumonitis in cheese workers, humidifier lung disease, woodmans lung disease, and cork workers (suberosis) disease.

Penicillium Atrovenetum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a bright bluish-green colony with an intense yellowish-brown reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It produces an intense yellowish-brown diffusible pigment. It is a common fungus isolated in soil samples from Europe. It is rarely isolated in soil samples from the United States. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Brevicompactum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a grayish-green colony with an uncolored or brownish reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). While it is a common fungus isolated worldwide, it is infrequently isolated from soil, plants, swamps, marshes, bird feathers, rabbit dung, fruits, and fruit juices. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Penicillium Canescens
A slow-growing fungus that produces a grayish-green to grayish-brown colony with an orange to rich brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is a common fungus isolated worldwide from soil, plants, sea water, and bird feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Chrysogenum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a grass-green to blue-green colony with an pale to bright yellowish reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). A yellow diffusible pigment is produced. It produces an fruity (apples or pineapples) odor. It is a common fungus isolated worldwide from soil, plants, intestinal tract of insects and reptiles, flour-based foodstuffs, and fruit juices. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing systemic fungal infections..

Penicillium Citrinum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a blue-green colony with a bright yellow reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is a common fungus isolated worldwide from soil, plants, bird feathers, gerbils, flour-based food-stuffs, and fruit juices. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing eye (corneal ulcers) infections.

Penicillium Claviforme
A slow-growing fungus that produces a gray-green colony with an uncolored or brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is isolated worldwide, but infrequently from soil, plants, salt-marshes, sand, and from the dung of birds, kangaroos, and opossums. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Corylophilum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a blue-green colony with a dark green reverse, within twelve days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is commonly isolated worldwide but is found more frequently in warmer climates than from cool-temperate climates. It is isolated from soil, plants, foodstuffs, bees, and honeycombs. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Daleae
A slow-growing fungus that produces a grayish-brown colony with an uncolored to brown reverse, within twelve days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is an uncommon fungus isolated worldwide from soil, plants, and gerbils. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Decumbens
A slow-growing fungus that produces a dull blue-green colony with an uncolored or slight greenish reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is a common fungus isolated worldwide from soil including desert soils, sand dunes, salt-marsh, mangrove swamps, bird feathers, and fruit juices. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Digitatum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a greenish-brown colony with an uncolored or dull tan reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It produces an odor of decaying citrus fruits. It is a common fungus isolated worldwide from soil, swamps, water, composted municipal waste, plants, citrus fruits, and fruit juices. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Expansum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a light green colony with an uncolored or yellow-brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It produces an aromatic fruity odor (apples). It is a common fungus isolated worldwide from air, soil, sewage, salt-marshes, plants, bees, bird feathers, meat, fruits, and fruit juices. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing eye (corneal ulcers) infections.

Penicillium Fellutanum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a bluish-green colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is a common fungus isolated worldwide from soil, sand dunes, desert soil, plants, bird feathers, fruits, and fruit juices. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Frequentans
A slow-growing fungus that produces a bluish-green colony with a yellow-brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is a common fungus isolated worldwide from soil, plants, bird feathers, gerbils, frogs, caterpillars, wood pulp, paper, flour-based foodstuffs, bee hives, fruits, and fruit juices. It is involved in suberosis, a respiratory disease in workers in the cork industry.

Penicillium Funiculosum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a yellow-green colony with a pink to deep red or orange-brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It produces an earthy, sometimes aromatic odor. It is a very common fungus isolated worldwide from air, soil, sand dunes, desert sand, sewage, mangrove swamps, polluted water, plants, bird feathers, bees, fruits, and optical lenses. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Granulatum
A moderately slow-growing fungus that produces a blue-green colony with a yellow to orange-brown reverse, within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It produces an aromatic fruity odor. While it has a worldwide distribution, it is one of the rarer species isolated. It has been isolated from soil, caves, plants, honeycombs, and caterpillars. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Griseofulvum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a light grayish-green colony with an yellow to orange-brown reverse, within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It may produce a fragrant odor. It is an infrequent fungus isolated worldwide from soil, sewage, caves, plants, rabbit dung, gerbils, and bird feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Herquei
A slow-growing fungus that produces a yellow to yellow-green to light olivaceous green colony with an dark yellow-green reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is an rare fungus isolated worldwide from soil, desert soil, salt-marsh, caves, polluted water, cotton fabrics, and foodstuffs. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Implicatum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a bluish-green colony with a yellow-orange to deep brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It had been isolated worldwide from soil, desert soil, caves, polluted water, salt-water, estuarine sediments, sewage, plants, bird feathers, leather, and the intestinal tract of caterpillars. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Islandicum
A slow-growing fungus that produces orange to red areas in a dark green colony with an yellow-orange to deep brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It had been isolated worldwide from soil, plants, bird feathers, and flour-type foodstuffs. It is one of the most toxic fungi found in food and is the cause of A yellow rice. It is responsible for acute and chronic liver diseases including cirrhosis and carcinoma.

Penicillium Italicum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a gray-green colony with a pale gray to yellow-brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It produces a sweet perfume odor. It is found worldwide with the majority of isolates from warmer climates. It has been isolated from soil, plants, fresh water, salt marshes, caves, citrus fruits and fruit juices. It is responsible for A blue rot of citrus. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Janthinellum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a pale gray to greenish-gray colony with a bright yellowish- green or red reverse, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is one of the most common isolates. It has been isolated from soil, plants, mangrove swamps, polluted water, caves, wooden furniture, bird feathers, and on food products. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Jensenii
A slow-growing fungus that produces a grayish-green colony with an uncolored or dull peach reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide but is infrequently isolated. It has been isolated from soil, plants, fresh and salt water, caves, and fruits. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Lanosum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a white, later, pale grayish-green colony with an uncolored or drab reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and has been isolated from soil, desert soil, sand dunes, salt marshes, plants, fresh water, caves, foodstuffs, and caterpillars. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Lividum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a grayish blue-green colony with a dull peach to flesh to orange reverse, within twelve days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide but is relatively rare. It has been isolated from soil, plants, and bird feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Nigricans
A slow-growing fungus that produces a light gray to dark olive gray colony with a yellow to orange reverse, within twelve days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is very common and is found worldwide. It has been isolated from soil, dunes, salt marshes, polluted and unpolluted water, plants, compost, rabbit dung, bird feathers, fruit and fruit juices. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Oxalicum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dull green colony with an uncolored or pink reverse, in less than ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is very common and is found worldwide, especially in warmer climates.. It has been isolated from soil, dunes, sewage, desert soil, salt marshes, mangrove swamps, polluted waters, and bird feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Purpurogenum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a deep yellow-green colony with a deep red to dark reddish-purple reverse, within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It produces a dark red to dark-reddish purple diffusible pigment and a fruity (apples or walnuts) odor. It has a worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, mangrove swamps, sandy soil, desert soil, polluted water, plants, bird feathers, leather, and optical lenses. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Restrictum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a brownish-gray colony with a yellow to peach or drab reverse, within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is a commonly isolated fungus with a worldwide distribution. It has been isolated from soil, sandy soil, desert soil, polluted water, seawater, fresh water, plants, and bird feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Rubrum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a yellow-green to gray-green colony with a deep red reverse, within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It produces a dark red diffusible pigment. It has a worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, soil around human dwellings, caves, sand dunes, children=s sand pits, sewage sludge, compost, seawater, polluted fresh water, fruits and plants. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Rugulosum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a yellow-green to dark green colony with a yellow to orange-brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, desert soils, sand dunes, polluted water, fresh water, seawater, plants, flour-based foodstuffs, rabbit dung, cotton, textiles, wooden furniture, and bird feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Sacculum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a gray-green colony with an uncolored or grayish reverse, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is rarely isolated from soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Simplicissimum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a greenish-gray colony with an uncolored to yellow reverse, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, sandy soil, and mangrove swamps. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Spinulosum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a yellow-green to dark green colony with a yellow to orange-brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, sewage, polluted streams, fresh water, seawater, plants, flour-based foodstuffs, rabbit dung, fruit, and leather. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Steckii
A slow-growing fungus that produces a blue-green colony with an uncolored or dull yellow reverse, within twelve days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, desert soils, caves, plants, foodstuffs, and cotton fabric. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Stoloniferum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a grayish-green colony with an uncolored or dull brownish reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is rarely isolated. It has been isolated from soil, desert soils, sandy soils, caves, plants, rabbit dung, sewage, fruits, and bees. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Thomii
A slow-growing fungus that produces a dark green colony with a pale yellow to pinkish-brown reverse, within twelve days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is more widely distributed in temperate climates than in tropical climates. It has been isolated from soil, desert soils, sand dunes, swamps, caves, plants, seawater, polluted water, sewage, bird feathers, caterpillars, fruits, and fruit juices. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Variabile
A slow-growing fungus that produces a yellow colony with a yellow to orange or greenish-brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is widely distributed in the world and has been isolated from soil, desert soils, sand dunes, mangrove swamps, caves, plants, seawater, polluted water, sewage, rabbit dung, paper, optical lenses, and fruit juices. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Verrucosum Variety Verrucosum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a bright yellow-green colony with a yellowish or brownish reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, desert soils, sand dunes, sewage, plants, flour-based foodstuffs, fodder, bird feathers, gerbils, mold-fermented sausages, fruits, and fruit juices. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Verrucosum Variety Corymbiferum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a yellow-green colony with an orange-brown reverse, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It produces an orange-brown pigment that diffuses into the agar. It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from air, soil, sand dunes, caves, estuarine sediments, plants, flour-based foodstuffs, and fruits. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Verrucosum Variety Cyclopium
A slow-growing fungus that produces a blue-green colony with an uncolored, yellow, orange or brown reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is one of the widely distributed species of the genus Penicillium. It has been isolated from soil, desert soil, sand dunes, seawater, polluted water, caves, estuarine sediments, plants, garden composts, gerbils, rabbit and goat dung, flour-based foodstuffs, fermented foods, fruits and fruit juices. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Verrucosum Variety Melanochlorum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a dark green colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is not a widely distributed species of the genus Penicillium being limited to the temperate climates. It has been isolated from soil, desert soil, caves, swamps, plants, fruits and bees. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Penicillium Waksmanii
A slow-growing fungus that produces a pale blue-green colony with a pale pinkish reverse, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, desert soils, sandy soil, plants, seawater, flour-based foodstuffs, fermented foods, bird feathers, fruits, and fruit juices. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Periconia Species
A moderately rapid growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, olivaceous, or black colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, herbaceous stems and leaves of plants, grasses, and wood. It is primarily a plant pathogen and there have not been any reports of human infections.

Phialophora Species
A slow growing fungus that produces an olivaceous-black colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, decaying wood, wood pulp, and plants. It is a plant pathogen but has been found to the cause of chromoblastomycosis, corneal ulcers, and subcutaneous granulomas in man.

Phialophora Americana (Phialophora verrucosa)
A slow growing fungus that produces an olivaceous-black colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from wood, wood products, soil, air, wasps, nest, birds, nest, and bird droppings. It is a plant pathogen but has been found to the cause of chromoblastomycosis and corneal ulcers in man.

Phialophora Richardsiae
A slow growing fungus that produces a gray-brown to olivaceous-brown colony with a brown to black reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, wood pulp, bogs and conifer swamps, sewage, plastics, and plants. It has been found to the cause of subcutaneous granulomas in man.

Phoma Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a grayish-brown colony with a black reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, sandy soil, plants, and wood. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing infections of the hands, feet, ear and nose (phaeohypomycosis), allergenic reactions and a hypersensitivity pneumonitis known as shower curtain disease.

Phoma Eupyrena
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dark green colony later becoming black with a black reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, sandy soil, activated sludge, plants, and wood. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing infections of the hands, feet, ear and nose (phaeohydromycosis), allergenic reactions and a hypersensitivity pneumonitis known as shower curtain disease.

Pithomyces Chartarum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white, later dark gray colony within eight days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from air, soil, plants, decaying plants, decaying paper, and bird feathers. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Plectosphaerella Cucumerina
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a cream or pinkish colony with the production of conidial slime, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil and decaying plants. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Pleiochaeta Setosa
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces grey, olivaceous brown or black colonies in fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and is very common in temperate and subtropical regions. It has been isolated from plants and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Pleospora Herbarum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces colonies in nine days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and is very common in temperate and subtropical regions. It has been isolated from plants and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Pythium Species
A rapidly-growing fungus when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from plants, plant detritus, and soil. It is a plant pathogen causing damping-off of seedlings, foot rot, and root rot. There have not been any reports of human infections.

R

Rhinocladiella Species
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a brownish colony with a dark reverse, within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from soil, plants, and wood. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

Rhinocladiella Anceps
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a brownish colony with a dark reverse, within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from decaying plants and wood. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Rhizopus Species
A very rapidly-growing fungi that produce either brownish-gray or reddish gray-brown colonies within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is found primarily in the tropical and subtropical areas. It has been isolated from soil, desert soil, childrens sandpits, sand dunes, salt marshes, mines, bat caves, fresh and salt water, plants, and foodstuffs. Rarely, certain species can be opportunistic human pathogens causing zygomycosis.

Rhizopus Oryzae (Rhizopus arrhizus)
A very rapid-growing fungus that produces a brownish-gray colony within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is found primarily in the tropical and subtropical areas. It has been isolated from soil, salt marshes, mines, caves, bat guano, bird feathers, fresh and salt water, plants, and foodstuffs. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing zygomycosis.

Rhizopus Rhizopodiformis (Rhizopus microsporus variety rhizopodiformis)
A very rapid-growing fungus that produces a gray to dark brownish-gray colony within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is found primarily in the tropical and subtropical areas. It has been isolated from soil, salt marshes, mines, caves, bat guano, bird feathers, fresh and salt water, plants, and foodstuffs. It is an opportunistic human pathogen causing cutaneous infections (zygomycosis) following the use of Elastoplast bandages to cover surgical wounds.

Rhizopus Stolonifer
A very rapid-growing fungus that produces a reddish gray-brown colony within four days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is found primarily in the tropical and subtropical areas. It has been isolated from soil, desert soil, childrens sandpits, sand dunes, salt marshes, mines, bat caves, fresh and salt water, plants, and foodstuffs. Its role as an opportunistic human pathogen causing zygomycosis is questioned because of its inability to grow at 37oC (98.6oF).

Rhodotorula Species
A yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. Colonies may be pasty or mucoid due to capsule formation, with the development of a coral red to salmon to slightly orange or yellow pigment. It has worldwide distribution and is common. It has been isolated from air, soil, plants, wood pulp, fresh water, and salt water. It has been isolated from a variety of clinical specimens but rarely is pathogenic for man. It may be part of the normal fungal flora of certain individuals.

Rhodotorula Glutinis (Rhodotorula rubra)
A yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. Colonies may be pasty or mucoid due to capsule formation, with the development of a coral red to salmon to slightly orange or yellow pigment. It has worldwide distribution and is common. It has been isolated from air, soil, plants, wood pulp, fresh water, and salt water. It has been isolated from a variety of clinical specimens but rarely is pathogenic for man. It may be part of the normal fungal flora of certain individuals.

Rhodotorula Minuta
A yeast that reproduce by multilateral budding. Colonies may be mucoid due to capsule formation or can be pasty or dry and wrinkled. A red or yellow pigment is produced. It has worldwide distribution and is common. It has been isolated from air, soil, plants, marine and plant life in sea water (especially near Florida and the Bahamas). It has been isolated from a variety of clinical specimens but appears not to be pathogenic for man and may be part of the normal fungal flora of certain individuals.

S

Scolecobasidium Species
A slow-growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, olivaceous brown or blackish olive colony within twenty-one days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and is common. It has been isolated primarily from soil, desert soil, salt marshes, plants, compost, decaying leaves, and fish aquarium water. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Scolecobasidium Constrictum
A slow-growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, olivaceous brown or blackish olive colony within twenty-one days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and is common. It has been isolated from soil, desert soil, salt marshes, plants, compost, decaying leaves, and water. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Scolecobasidium Tshawytschae (Scolecobasidium variable)
A slow-growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, olivaceous brown or blackish olive colony within twenty-one days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and is common. It has been isolated from soil, desert soil, salt marshes, plants, compost, decaying leaves, and fish aquarium water. It is the cause of fish mycosis. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Scopulariopsis Species
A moderately slow-growing fungus that produces a white, buff, brown or black colony with a buff or honey-colored reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and is very common. It has been isolated from soil, desert soils, plants, grasses, compost, insects, and bird feathers. Rarely an opportunistic human pathogen causing fungal infections of the skin and nails, and is associated with Type III (Immune Complex-Induced Disease) allergy.

Scopulariopsis Brevicaulis
A moderately slow-growing fungus that produces a white, buff, or grayish colony with a honey-colored reverse, within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and is very common. It has been isolated from soil, desert soils, plants, grasses, compost, insects, and bird feathers. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen causing fungal infections of the skin and nails, and is associated with Type III (Immune Complex-Induced Disease) allergy.

Sepedonium Species
A moderately rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white, later yellow colony with a white reverse, within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from soil. It can be confused with the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum because it produces large, round, thick walled, rough or knobby macroconidia. However, it can be differentiated from H. capsulatum by not forming microconidia, by not converting to a yeast when grown at 35oC, and by its rapid growth rate. It is not pathogenic for humans.

Spegazzinia Species
A slow-growing fungus that produces a brownish-black to black colony within seven to ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from soil and plants. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Spegazzinia Tessarthra
A slow-growing fungus that produces a black colony within seven to ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from soil and plants. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Spondylocladiella Species
A dematiaceous fungus. Saprphytic in nature. Conidia (prospores/blastospores) are dark, mostly 3-celled, oblong structure. Size varies from 7 - 15 microns. Not reported as aeroallergens.

Sporidiobolus Species
A yeast that reproduces by budding. Colonies are slimy with an extensive hyphal fringe and produce a pale yellow to slightly salmon pigment. It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from plants and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections, however, it can cause allergic disease.

Sporidiobolus Johnsonii B
A yeast that reproduces by budding. Colonies are slimy with an extensive hyphal fringe and produce a pale yellow to slightly salmon pigment. This isolate has been identified as belonging to Group B using the Biolog classification system. It has worldwide distribution and has been isolated from plants and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections, however, it can cause allergic disease.

Sporotrichum Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white, later tan, pinkish, yellow or orange colony with a tannish reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from soil. It is not pathogenic for humans.

Sporothrix Species
A slow-growing fungus that produces a white, later greyish or black colony within seven to ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from soil, plant litter, bark, wood, straw, and living plants. One species, Sporothrix schenckii, is the causal agent of sporotrichosis; a chronic subcutaneous lymphatic, rarely respiratory, fungal infection occurring in man and other mammals.

Sporothrix Schenckii
A slow-growing fungus that produces a white, later greyish or black colony within seven to ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from soil, plant litter, bark, wood, straw, and living plants. It is the causal agent of sporotrichosis; a chronic subcutaneous lymphatic, rarely respiratory, fungal infection occurring in man and other mammals.

Stachybotrys Chartarum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white colony that becomes black with age with a reverse that is white but becomes black. Growth occurs within five days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and is commonly isolated from soil, desert soil, saline soil, sewage sludge, compost, seawater, fresh water, decaying plant substrates, moldy hay and straw, vegetables and grasses, bird feathers, frescoes of a monastery, wall paper, gypsum board, and wood wall panels. It is capable of decomposing cellulose, chitin, and wool. It produces trichothecene mycotoxins in its mycelium that causes stachybotryotoxicosis in animals and man. Animal stachybotryotoxicosis is caused by the ingestion of mycotoxin contaminated food. In man, stachybotryotoxicosis is caused by the inhalation of the mycotoxin which produces upper respiratory and/or neurologic symptoms, including dermatitis, coughing, rhinitis, irritated throat, fever, headache, feebleness and fatigue.

Staphylotrichum Coccosporum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a yellow-orange colony with a brown reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is especially common in warmer climates. It is very commonly isolated from soil and occasionally from plants. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Stemphylium Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, or black colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, wood, paper, and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections, however, it can cause allergic disease.

Stemphylium Sarciniforms
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, or black colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections, however, it can cause allergic disease.

Sterigmatomyces Elviae
A yeast that reproduce by production of a basidiospore on a sterigma (a supporting structure for the basidiospore). Colonies are white and pasty with a dry granular surface. It has worldwide distribution and is common. It has been isolated from air, soil, plants, marine and plant life in sea water (especially near Florida and the Bahamas). It has been isolated from a variety of clinical specimens but appears not to be pathogenic for man and may be part of the normal fungal flora of certain individuals.

Sterile Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes
A group of fungi that produce only olivaceous-brown pigmented mycelium. Because they do not produce spores, they cannot be identified.

Sterile Fungi
A group of fungi that produce only mycelium on the isolation medium. Because they do not produce spores on the isolation medium, they cannot be identified.

Syncephalastrum Racemosum
A very rapidly-growing fungus that produces a light to dark gray colony within three days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and is mainly found in dung and soil in tropical and subtropical regions. It has been isolated from air, soil rich in organic matter, caves, salt marshes, salt water, mangrove swamps, polluted and stagnant fresh water, plants and rotting plant remains, dead adult bees, honeycombs, and cotton fabric. Rarely, it can be an opportunistic human pathogen.

T

Talaromyces Species (Anamorph: Penicillium species)
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces either a yellow colony or a colony with a pale brown center within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Ascomata are produced in either a pinkish, white, creamish, yellow, yellow-orange, or reddish brown layer. It has worldwide distribution and is very common. It can be 
isolated from air, soil, mangrove swamps, sea water, leaf litter, municipal waste, garden compost, grain and vegetable seeds, pecans, and dung. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Talaromyces Emersonii (Anamorph: Penicillium emersonii)
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a colony with a pale brown center within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Ascomata are produced in a yellow to reddish brown layer. Ascospores are smooth walled, thick walled, and yellow. It has worldwide distribution and is very common. It can be isolated from air, soil, mangrove swamps, leaf litter, wood chips, municipal waste, garden compost, sugar cane bagasse, grain and vegetable seeds, and pecans. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Talaromyces Flavus (Anamorph: Penicillium vermiculatum)
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a yellow colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). Ascomata are produced in a yellow or pinkish layer. Ascospores are broadly ellipsoidal, spinulose, and yellow. It has worldwide distribution and is more commonly isolated from warmer climates. It can be isolated from soil, mangrove swamps, salt water, leaf litter, wood chips, municipal waste, garden compost, grain and vegetable seeds, and pecans. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Torula Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dark brown colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is very common in temperate climates. It can be isolated from air, soil, decaying plants, wood, fresh water, sea water, bird nesting materials, and nuts. There have not been any reports of human infections, however, it can cause allergic disease.

Torula Herbarum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a dark brown colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is very common in temperate climates. It can be isolated from air, soil, decaying plants, wood, fresh water, sea water, bird nesting materials, and nuts. There have not been any reports of human infections, however, it can cause allergic disease.

Torulomyces Lagena (Monocillium humicola)
A slow-growing fungus that produces a light brown colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is not very common in soil. It can be isolated from conifer swamps, forest soil, soil, peat, forest litter, and sand dunes. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Torulopsis Glabrata
A yeast that reproduce by budding and does not form pseudohyphae. Colonies are small, white to cream colored, pasty and smooth. It has worldwide distribution and is common. It has been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy men and women, animals and birds. It can cause infection in susceptible individuals. Susceptible individuals include those with immunological diseases; those that have had prolonged treatment with antibiotics, corticosteroids, or cytotoxic drugs; and those that have diabetes.

Trichocladium Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a gray to black green colony within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is predominate in the temperate zones. It is very commonly isolated from soil, plants, and dead wood. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Trichoderma Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white, yellow-green, green colony within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is common. It is very commonly isolated from soil, sewage sludge, jet fuel, plants, paper, textiles, fresh water, sea water, bird feathers, and bees. There have not been any reports of human infections, however, it can cause allergic disease.

Trichoderma Viride
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white, yellow-green, green colony within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is common. It is very commonly isolated from soil, sewage sludge, jet fuel, plants, paper, textiles, fresh water, sea water, bird feathers, and bees. There have not been any reports of human infections, however, it can cause allergic disease.

Trichophyton Species
A slow to moderately-growing fungus that produces a white, yellowish, rose, or brownish colony within fourteen days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution and can be isolated from the soil. They are capable of invading human and animal skin, hair, and nails causing ringworm and athletes foot.

Trichosporon Species
A yeast that reproduce by budding and forms both pseudohyphae and true hyphae. Colonies are cream colored, soft, becoming wrinkled with age. It has worldwide distribution and is common. It has been isolated from soil, plants, fresh water, and salt water. It causes an infection of the hair called white piedra, and rarely can cause opportunisticic disseminated infections.

Trichothecium Roseum
A very rapidly-growing fungus that produces a pinkish colony within ten days, when incubated at 25C (77F). It has worldwide distribution but is common. It is very commonly isolated from air, decaying plant material, compost, sewage sludge, dunes, salt marshes, flour-based foodstuffs, bird feathers, water, frescoes of a monastery, and rarely from soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Tritirachium Species
A slow growing fungus that produces a white, later becoming yellow or pinkish colony, within eight days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from soil, desert soil, peat bogs, water, and plants. There have not been any documented reports of human infections, however, it can cause allergic disease.

Tritirachium Oryzae
A slow growing fungus that produces a white, later becoming yellow or pinkish colony, within eight days when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide and is commonly isolated from soil, desert soil, peat bogs, water, and plants. There have not been any documented reports of human infections.

U

Ulocladium Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a brown, or black colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, rotten wood, paper, textiles and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Ulocladium Botrytis
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a brown, or black colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, rotten wood, paper, textiles and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Ulocladium Chartarum
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a brown, or black colony with a dark reverse, within five days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide and is very common. It can be isolated from the air, plants, rotten wood, paper, textiles, mines, water, animal dung, and soil. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Ustilago Species
A slow growing basidiomycete that resembles a yeast. It produces a white to cream yeast-like colony, often mucoid, that reproduces by budding. These are Asmut fungi and have a worldwide distribution and can be isolated from plants, air and soil. It has been isolated in the clinical laboratory from sputum specimens and from the nasopharynx in patients without any evidence of infection. Rarely, it can cause meningitis and eye (corneal) infections.

Ustilago Maydis
A slow growing basidiomycete that resembles a yeast. It produces a white to cream yeast-like colony, often mucoid, that reproduces by budding. These are Asmut fungi and have a worldwide distribution and can be isolated from plants, air and soil. It has been isolated in the clinical laboratory from sputum specimens and from the nasopharynx in patients without any evidence of infection. Rarely, it can cause meningitis and eye (corneal) infections.

V

Verticillium Species
A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a white, cream or yellow colony with a whitish to cream reverse, within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It has worldwide distribution but is common. It is commonly isolated from air, plants and soil. Rarely, it can cause eye (corneal) infections.

W

Wickerhamiella Domercqiae
A yeast that reproduce by bipolar budding and by the production of an ascus containing one or two spores. Colonies are gray to slightly yellowish and pasty. It has worldwide distribution and is common. It has been isolated from animal dung and soil. It may be part of the normal fungal flora of rodents, especially squirrels. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Z

Zygorrhynchus Species
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a gray or olive-gray colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide in soil, forest soil, grassland soil, peat, dunes, salt marsh, sewage sludge, fresh and salt water, and household refuse. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Zygorrhynchus Moelleri
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a gray or olive-gray colony within ten days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). It is found worldwide in soil, forest soil, grassland soil, peat, dunes, salt marsh, sewage sludge, fresh water and salt water. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Zygosporium Species
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, or black colony within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide on plants, and dead leaves. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Zygosporium Gibbum
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, or black colony within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide on plants, and dead leaves. There have not been any reports of human infections.

Zygosporium Masonii
A moderately rapid-growing fungus that produces a gray, brown, or black colony within seven days, when incubated at 25oC (77oF). The hyphae, conidiophores, and conidia are pigmented olivaceous-brown (dematiaceous). It is found worldwide on plants, and dead leaves. There have not been any reports of human infections.